This IADC Accredited Fundamental level Coiled Tubing course is intended for anyone interested in gaining a greater, advanced knowledge of coiled tubing operations. The course delves into the fundamentals of Coiled Tubing operations with a focus on pressures, equipment, and key procedures.
This course is built for coiled tubing supervisors, unit operators, pump operators, nitrogen pump operators, choke operators, and helpers.
The Fundamental Coiled Tubing course covers all material required by the IADC (International Association of Drilling Contractors), in their WellCap Fundamental Coiled Tubing program. Key topics include fundamental well pressures, coiled tubing equipment, fluids, and bullheading procedures. See detailed outline below.
After successfully completing the course and achieving a passing grade on the final exam you will receive an IADC Coiled Tubing certificate at the Fundamental level. This certificate is recognized across the globe.
|Chapter 1 Servicing Fundamentals|
Intro to Servicing
Examines the different reasons for well servicing and intervention operations; Discusses acidizing, sanding problems, hydraulic fracturing (fracking), plugging, and gravel packing.
Provides links to valuable online Math resources to learn and refresh before you start the course.
Explores fundamental properties of fluids. Examines density at the molecular level and introduces the equation for density. Looks at the consequences of density when different substances are mixed together, such as oil, water, and gas.
Introduces the Mud Balance and Pressurized Mud Balance tests used to calculate the density of drilling mud in the rough field environment. Also examines the tests involved in measuring viscosity.
Explains the major differences and relative pros and cons of both oil based and water based drilling mud. Also, briefly explores synthetic oil based mud, cement slurry, and fluids used during the workover and completions process.
Pipes & Manifolds
Uses the real-life example of a highway system to introduce valves and manifolds on a drilling rig. Walks through the definition, function, and importance of the pump, standpipe, and choke manifolds through vibrant animations. Introduces the adjustable choke and briefly goes into its importance in well control operations.
|Chapter 2 Pressure|
Examines pressure through several different, real-life examples. Introduces students to pressure differentials and the concept of equilibrium; setting the stage for later discussion on pressure in the wellbore.
Defines the blowout and introduces the terrible consequences of an uncontrolled blowout on causing injury to personnel, loss of rig, and harm to the environment. Then, introduces the kick and examines how a kick is caused by pressure differentials and how a kick can turn into a blowout.
Offers a comprehensive look at Formation Pressure deep underground. First, introduces the concept of porosity- taking a look at formation rocks at a molecular level. Then, examines underground pressures both before and after drilling begins, taking a look at what pressures are removed during drilling operations. Lastly, examines the Formation Pressure Gradient and walks through how formation pressure can be mathematically calculated. Student must interact with and answer a question to complete lesson.
Examines the pressure exerted by a column of fluid, both in and out of the wellbore. Derives the generally accepted equation for hydrostatic pressure in a well and walks students through examples. Interactive, in-module questions require student to read, answer, and think about question while going through the lesson.
Introduces friction and examines how frictional losses act against any movement along a surface. Identifies Pump Pressure as the pressure needed to overcome the frictional losses throughout the entire system. Lastly, explains how Annular Friction Loss can contribute to bottomhole pressure.
Balancing Well Pressures
Discusses how pressure differentials are relevant in balancing well pressures in a producing well. Specifically, introduces the concept of underbalance and overbalance and examines the consequences.
Uses animation to indicate the exact location of the U-Tube within the wellbore. Then, introduces the U-Tube effect with an example.
Explains the pressure felt on rig surface equipment and the consequences of exceeding the maximum surface pressure limits of well equipment. Creates an analogy to compare wellbore surface pressure with surface pressure felt on the cap of a shaken soda bottle.
|Chapter 3 Well Processes|
Intro to Drilling
Using animation, introduces students to the basic fundamentals of the drilling process. Introduces the drill bit, drill collar, drill pipe, and derrick. Then, introduces casing pipe and the cementing process. All concepts taught and explained to be accessible to students with no prior drilling knowledge.
Intro to Completions
Provides an animated look at the well completions process and all fundamental well completions equipment. Introduces downhole safety valves, landing nipples, side pocket mandrels, and multiple completions.
Intro to Production
Introduces the fundamental objectives of well production operations, including an animated and graphical look at the Christmas Tree, tubing hanger, and tubing and casing pressure gauges.
|Chapter 4 Intro to Coiled Tubing|
Intro to Coiled Tubing
Introduces the coiled tubing unit including fundamental equipment such as the injector head, reel, and power unit.
CT Fluid Circulation System
Establishes the importance of fluids during well servicing operations; introduces the path fluid takes through the bottomhole assembly during coiled tubing.
Coiled Tubing Limits
Defines the different ways coiled tubing can fail and experience fatigue, including buckling, tensile collapse, collapse, burst, and ovality.
Coiled Tubing Pressures
Looks at how fundamental well control pressures change during coiled tubing operations.
|Chapter 5 Kicks|
Kicks during Servicing
Looks at kicks during well servicing operations, examining the difference between a kicking well and a producing well.
Uses powerful, downhole animation to let students visualize the suction effect of Swabbing and how it can pull formation fluid upwards into the well. Introduces Swab Pressure and explains how it acts against bottomhole pressure.
Uses powerful, downhole animation to let students visualize the water hammer effect of Surging and how it can create significant downward pressure that causes fracturing or lost circulation. Introduces Surge Pressure and explains how it acts against bottomhole pressure.
Lost Circulation & Fracturing
Explains the second part of Kick Theory; the consequences of letting Bottomhole Pressure become too much larger than Formation Pressure. Through animation, demonstrates how Lost Circulation can cause True Vertical Depth to fall and cause a kick to occur.
Explores several intentional kicks that create situations where formation fluid enters the wellbore. Explores the drill stem test and underbalanced drilling operations.
Explains some of the most dangerous gases experienced during oil and gas operations, exploring the properties that make them dangerous to rig personnel. Explains the low density of gas and how it can lead to gas migration when mixed together with other liquids. Introduces Boyle’s Law and the concept of gas compressibility.
In an interactive, engaging way uses the example of one gas kick to demonstrate the consequences of two different approaches to dealing with a gas kick: 1) Taking a very long time to respond to the gas kick and 2) Letting the gas kick migrate without expansion. At each stage of the kick’s movement upwards, the student must engage in many calculations.
|Chapter 6 Kick Detection|
Emphasizes the importance of responding to a kick as quickly as possible, highlighting the consequences of taking too long to respond.
Explains the importance of fluid measurement in detecting problems in the wellbore. Introduces the Pit Level Indicator, used to measure the amount of fluid returning to the mud tanks, the Mud Return Indicator, used to measure the speed of fluid returning to the mud tanks, and the Mud Pump Stroke counter, used to count how many strokes of fluid have been pumped into the well.
Introduces the Trip Sheet and its importance in monitoring the Trip Tank during tripping operations. Walks through a specific example of pipe being pulled out of the well and the details that would be recorded on a trip sheet.
Kick Warning Signs
Introduces the warning signs that formation pressure is increasing or that we have entered an abnormally pressured formation. Examples include changes in the mud weight of returning drilling mud, increased drilling mud viscosity, and the generation of odd-shaped rock cuttings.
|Chapter 7 Blowout Prevention System|
Introducing the BOP
Conceptually introduces the BOP stack and its importance in shutting-in the well to prevent kicked fluid from reaching the surface.
Annular & Ram Preventers
Discusses the differences between annular and ram preventers, using 3D animations to visually demonstrate the unique attributes of each preventer. Ram elements are discussed as well as the role of the drilling spool.
Explains the need to shut-in the drillpipe in addition the annulus. Introduces the Inside BOP, the Float Valve, and the Full Opening Safety Valve.
Looks at the fundamental calculations and procedures involved in Stripping Operations, both with and without volumetric control.
Looks at the surface operated surface and subsurface safety valves set in a producing well.
BOP Control Systems
Explains, in detail, the function and operation of the BOP Control System. Delves into pre-charge pressures, operating pressures, usable volume tests and other pressure and volume considerations related to accumulator bottles. Highlights the risks in losing accumulator pressure.
Walks through pressure ratings of fundamental Well Control equipment, including an examination of pressure testing and function testing.
Introduces the barrier concept, exploring both mechanical and fluid barriers with several examples.
|Chapter 8 Coiled Tubing BOP|
Coiled Tubing BOP
Introduces the stripper and the Coiled Tubing BOP
Coiled Tubing Deployment
Looks at the fundamentals of deploying coiled tubing into a well.
Examines a few different complications involved in coiled tubing operations.
Explores the challenges involved in sour servicing a well with H2S
Takes a detailed look at the equipment involved in handling Nitrogen and associated safety concerns
|Chapter 9 Kick Procedures|
Provides a detailed, step-by-step conceptual understanding of the impact of well shut-in on underground pressures. Using the example of a bottle cap, explains how shutting-in the well makes bottomhole pressure automatically equal to formation pressure.
Shut-in Procedure & Verification
Defines the importance procedures involved in the well shut-in process, during several different types of well operations. Also explains the importance and procedure involved in verifying that the well has successfully been shut-in.
Explains the three most important parameters that need to be recorded after shut-in: Shut in Tubing Pressure (SITP), Shut in Casing Pressure (SICP), and Estimated Pit Gain. Walks through the importance of SITP and SICP in understanding Formation Pressure and explains why SITP is generally lower than SICP. Also introduces the procedure involved in recording slow pump rates or slow circulating rates.
|Chapter 10 Constant BHP Methods|
Well Control Techniques
Examines different well control techniques used to control pressure when servicing a producing well; should the well be killed or not?
Constant BHP Methods
Introduces, conceptually, the importance and power of constant bottom hole pressure well kill methods. Explains how maintaining constant bottomhole pressure can prevent additional kicks, lost circulation, and surface pressure problems. Explains how turning on the Pump can increase bottomhole pressure and risk a kick, while opening the adjustable choke can reduce pressure when needed.
Introducing the Kill Sheet
Explains the importance of the Kill Sheet during well control operations, providing links to several kill sheets.
Examines the data on a Kill Sheet that must be pre-recorded prior to a well control incident, including formation strength data and pump data.
Looks at the calculations involved in calculating total strokes from the surface to the bit and back to the surface, by looking at piping capacites, lengths, and volumes.
Examines how to calculate Initial Circulating Pressure, Final Circulating Pressure, Kill Mud Weight, and creating a pressure schedule.
Gives an overview of the key well control kill methods, including Driller's Method and Wait and Weight Method.
Delves into the Bullheading method of well control, exploring the procedure via detailed animations.
|Chapter 11 Complications|
Trapped Pressure Complications
Visualizes the different locations where trapped pressure can become trapped in a completed well and looks at some of the methods of trapped pressure resolution.
Pressure on Casing
Examines some of the different ways pressure can become trapped in the casing string during well production
Recording Well Information
Examines the importance of recording well information during all well servicing operations, looking specifically at some of the information that must be recorded.
Looks at the different well servicing crew roles during well control operations and the associated drills.